Monday, September 30, 2019

Macbeth: A King in Name Only Essay

â€Å"I am, indeed, a king, because I know how to rule myself† (Pietro Aretino). Effective kings know how to rule themselves and their people. Throughout William Shakespeare’s Macbeth, the protagonist shows that he lacks verity, or the ability to be truthful. Similarly, Macbeth is in need of stability. Finally, Macbeth shows that he lacks patience. The characteristics that Macbeth demonstrates in the play suggest that he is an ineffective ruler due to his lack of verity, stability, and patience, several qualities which Malcolm describes as required of an effective ruler. Being truthful is a necessary and important characteristic for a ruler to be effective. A ruler who lacks verity will be challenged and others will not trust him. A ruler needs the support of his people and can gain their respect by being truthful. Throughout the play, Macbeth shows a lack of truthfulness to many people, including himself. When Macbeth finishes discussing the details of how he and Lady Macbeth will murder King Duncan, he leaves her by saying, â€Å"[Go], and mock the time with the fairest show: / False face must hide what the false heart doth know† (Mac. 1.7.82-83). Macbeth is telling Lady Macbeth to act like a welcoming and friendly hostess for their special guest, Duncan, while hiding her dark desires to kill him and take his rule over Scotland. Early in the play, this shows that Macbeth is very untruthful and wants other people to think the opposite of what he is thinking. This parallels the theme of appearance versus reality because Macbeth wants his wife to look like she is friendly and warm, but in her heart know her intentions of killing the king. After killing Duncan, Macbeth regrets his bad choice, but then lies when he is talking to Banquo about the witches’ prophecies by saying, â€Å"I think not of them† (2.1.22). This demonstrates Macbeth’s lack of verity because he tells Banquo that he is not thinking about the witches’ prophecies, but he certainly is. Macbeth’s over-ambitious nature causes him to be untruthful in his thoughts and his actions. His thoughts are now starting to take control of his actions. Not only does Macbeth lack the truthfulness required of an effective ruler, but his stability is also questionable. To be effective, a ruler must exhibit stability. He must be calm and be able to control his emotions. He cannot  make careless or irrational decisions and must act in the best interest of others, rather than focusing on himself. Demonstration of this quality through these actions is important in winning trust and respect from those under his rule. Macbeth’s mental stability starts to deteriorate and this leads to impure and insane behaviour. Macbeth is still contemplating killing Duncan, when he has a hallucination and says: Is this a dagger which I see before me, The handle toward my hand? Come, let me clutch thee. I have thee not, and yet I see thee still. Art thou not, fatal vision, sensible To feeling, as to sight? or art thou but A dagger of the mind, a false creation, Proceeding from the heat-oppressed brain? (2.1.33-39) Macbeth sees a dagger with drops of blood all over it, the blade pointing to Duncan and the handle to him. This suggests that fate is telling Macbeth to kill Duncan. This shows Macbeth’s mental instability because he is imagining the image of a bloody dagger, which indeed suggests that he is unstable and not fit to be an effective king. Macbeth’s mental deterioration starts to show even more when he sees Banquo’s ghost at a banquet he holds for his lords. Macbeth appears to get angry at the ghost of Banquo when he slams his cup down saying, â€Å"Avaunt! and quit my sight! let the earth hide thee! / Thy bones are marrowless, thy blood is cold; / Thou hast no speculation in those eyes / Which thou dost glare with† (3.4.93-96). At this point, even Macbeth’s guests start to question him and Lady Macbeth tries to calm him down. This suggests he is feeling guilty from all of the evil deeds he has committed, especially the murder of his dear friend, Banqu o. Throughout the play, Macbeth’s instability causes him to commit selfish and illogical deeds, which leads to great chaos in Scotland. An unstable ruler will cause chaos in his land and will therefore be an ineffective ruler. Since Macbeth’s mental state is quickly deteriorating, he is being forced to make quick decisions which he does not think through. Finally, in order to deal with people effectively, a strong ruler needs patience. People have different opinions and needs and a ruler must react to challenges calmly,  taking time to consider all facts to make decisions in the best interest of the country. A ruler who shows patience becomes more approachable to his subjects who trust the ruler to make good decisions. Macbeth does not demonstrate this quality and his lack of patience leads him to make irrational decisions and to overthink things, thus contributing to his downfall. Macbeth’s great ambition controls his actions and makes him more impatient. Macbeth shows his ambition early in the play, after he and Banquo receive their prophecies from the â€Å"weird† sisters. At first, they question the prophecies they receive, but then Macbeth becomes impatient and wants to be king as quickly as possible and against all odds. At the king’s palace, he proves his impatience by saying, â€Å"The Prince of Cumberland! That is a step,/ On which I must fall down, or else o’erleap† (1.4.48-49). Macbeth means that he must either stay where he is right now, or he must commit evil deeds to get what he wants, which is to become king. This shows he is impatient because the prophecies could have meant that Macbeth was going to become king by fate, but instead he took it into his own hands to become king. He did not want to wait for fate to take its course. It is Lady Macbeth who persuades Macbeth to kill the king and she fuels Macbeth’s ambition by calling him a coward and unmanly. He feels that he has to prove himself to Lady Macbeth, so he follows through and kills the king rather than taking time to think through the consequences. Macbeth again proves his blind ambition and shows his impatient nature when he prepares to kill the king. Macbeth recognizes his blind ambition because â€Å"[he has] no spur/ To prick the sides of [his] intent, but only/ Vaulting ambition, which o’erleaps itself,/ And falls on the other† (1.7.25-28). Macbeth admits his ambition and says that this is the only reason he can give for wanting to kill the king so quickly. Macbeth’s impatience and ambition later lead him to kill Banquo and Macduff’s family in order to quickly remove obstacles he perceives are in the way of him becoming king. Macbeth’s impatience to become king continues as he becomes an ineffective ruler and disrupts the order of the once happy Scotland. The protagonist, Macbeth, brings chaos to Scotland because of his lack of verity, stability, and patience, all qualities which Malcolm states are necessary for a good king. Macbeth shows he lacks truth through his many lies. That he also lacks stability is proven in his many hallucinations. Finally, Macbeth’s impatience is proven through  his blindly ambitious murders. Macbeth is clearly an in effective ruler, but if you were king, would you know how to rule yourself? Works Cited Shakespeare, W. Macbeth. Toronto: Canadian School Book Exchange, 1996. Print.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

John Berger Essay Essay

While in the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, I traveled through the different galleries and their various cultures; discovering all sorts of arts from Contemporary art, to American art, Japanese art, and even the Egyptian art where I could appreciate the complexity of mummies. Throughout all these diverse cultures of art, I was questioning myself and started to wonder how I could understand art beyond others’ opinion about them. Moreover, I realized that it was a question John Berger, critic of art and author of the Ways of Seeing, raised in his essay, and it is a question that will always be raised while demanding how to understand a certain art. Walking through a room where various French artists had their paintings exposed, I fell in front of the artwork (see above) painted by Paul Gauguin. I did not choose a French artist to make me remember the French culture that I am missing here in Boston, nor to pretend that the French are advanced in art, but a way to analyze and understand, with the experience of a famous art critic, an artwork from an artist who astonished me in my previous art classes. D’ou venons-nous, Qui sommes-nous, Ou allons-nous? By Paul Gauguin I chose a painting that had a warm expression, and complex story emanating from it. As the title of my essay indicates, the title of the painting translated in English is â€Å"Where are we from? Who are we? Where are we going? So many questions in the title and the painting, but there were as much coming through my mind while studying this image. This artwork is very ambiguous because I do not know how to start looking at it. I can observe people appearing half naked in the foreground, but we cannot really tell why they appear there. The statue in the back makes the questioning more obscure. It seems lik e an Oracle that gives people their destiny, and that is maybe why they all look so sad. Truly, I felt that this image was a representation of my origin country, West Indies, by the color Gauguin used. He used the blue to symbolize the ocean surrounding the island, and the mixed race of the habitants by the warm and beige color or the characters. I felt as if I was in the center of the painting, more precisely in the position of the child being observed in the right corner, and waiting to be reassured. I also felt like the person in the middle of the painting, standing up and waiting for answers while traveling through this painting. Gauguin’s artworks are extremely complicated to decipher, so are they to analyze. Gauguin is an artist I studied back in France in my art classes. Consequently, I had seen many of his works, and even the painting I chose; However, I had never asked myself how knowing about his life could help me study his paintings. I was taught in my art classes how to analyze art in a more technical way than in an analytical way like Berger supported. Indeed, when we were looking at the entire structure of the painting with my art class method, we were focusing on the brush strokes, the color, the tone, lines and forms, and the composition of the painting. If I had to describe the work of art I chose based on technical features, I would examine the painting saying that the brush strokes could express many emotions at the same time, and describe the painter style and art movement. Gauguin was also part of the post-impressionist painters with artists such as Paul Cezanne or Van Gogh. Post impressionist art was more focused on color, lines, outlines and perspective. Concerning Gauguin, the complexity of shapes is very important in his paintings due to their abstract significations. In fact, the lines were not straight; they were round and suggesting bodies that we did not see in art before. Moreover, the color had its importance. Post impressionist artists like Gauguin used color and color combination in order to create ‘vulgar’, ‘calm’ or ‘bold’ impressions (Robert Hughes). The analysis of the painting I just did was very technical and structural, but in no sense relevant for understanding the thought process as Berger explained. I was subject to mystification as John Berger explained in his essay as â€Å"the process of explaining away what might otherwise be evident† (103). Indeed, mystification appeared while I was looking at the painting. I could sense a certain limit of my understanding due to the previous art classes I had. In other terms, it meant for me that words were coming before seeing whereas seeing should come before words as Berger deciphered in his essay. My mind was already set for a certain critic about the painting based on the knowledge I had; Consequently, I could not have another point of view vis-a-vis the painting I was staring at. Although I learned a lot from my art classes, especially how to describe an artwork contextually, the observations and point of view of Berger about art gave me enough elements o have a complete analysis of an image, both contextually and historically. Using Berger as a guide for art description helped me to learn more about the painting historically, and much more about the painter himself to have a complete understanding of the artwork. Prior to this assignment, it had never occurred to me to use the biography and the background of the painter in order to facilitate my understanding of the painting. When Berger quoted â€Å"When we see a landscape, we situate ourselves in the it. If we saw the art of the past, we would situate ourselves in history. † (100) in the essay led me to start the analysis of Gauguin’s painting in a very different way. Actually, when I focused more on the painter’s life, and follow Berger’s analysis, I learned that Gauguin wanted to commit suicide after he painted this image. Plus, even though there was a caption under the image saying that it was his last painting, I would not have noticed that it was his last painting, which refers to what Berger described when he talked about Van Gogh’s last painting. Berger cited â€Å"The way we see things is affected by what we know or what we believe† (97). Clearly, it means that the details you know about a certain painting will prevent you from analyzing it innocently. Based on the art experience I acquired in class, I would have said that the image implies sadness because of the choice of colors, which were darker than his previous works. However, I think that the title gives us more details about his thoughts while he was painting. Through reading of artistic reviews or even my art book, named Shock of the New by Robert Hughes, I discovered that this work of art should be read from right to left, with the three main groups of people illustrating the questions that are asked in the title. The first group with the three women looking at the child represents the beginning of Gauguin’s life, making a reference to his parents, then there is the group in the middle which symbolizes all the experiences he went through while being a young adult. The last group shows an old lady close to death because of the darker color he used, moreover, there is an odd white bird at her feet, which could represent the guide to heaven. In the background of the painting, there is a blue statute, which represents what Gauguin described as the hereafter. This painting seems like a flash back of his life, and these three questions lead us to comprehend him better. Gauguin left a lot of non-answered questions about this painting, considered as a testimony to his life by many critics of art. Indeed, this painting is very complex. I learned by reading my previous art book, that Gauguin wrote a letter to his friend stipulating the reasons of the painting. In this letter, Gauguin said that he had decided to commit suicide in December; therefore, he wanted to paint on a huge canvas all the things he had on his mind for so long. Things he absolutely wanted to paint before his death. In this letter, Gauguin also confessed that the value of this painting is so much ahead of his precedents, and that it was a one of a kind that he could not nor would not try to produce a better painting. This sentence clearly explains that he reached the height of his life, and that now he drew this painting, there was nothing else he could do better or similar except terminate his life. Gauguin was wondering a lot about the existence of the world, and this perpetual questioning led him to the entitlement of this painting. As I said earlier in my essay, each group of people appearing in this painting is applied to a specific question of the title. Those questions made me think about my own life. Indeed, the questions he used are somehow important to everyone to really understand the meaning of their lives. Berger said â€Å"The way we see things is affected by what we know or what we believe† (97). While looking at this painting, I could recognize some events of my life, for instance, I could recall where I am from and what are my origins, as well as how I did to accomplish such academic success and arrive in the United States. Furthermore, due to my art background, I could understand better the expression and feelings Gauguin was trying to deliver in this painting with his powerful colors and thick traits. Approaching art is not easy at first glance, thus approaching it with different methods makes it more difficult to understand. Throughout my life, I have been able to view art in many different context, either artistically speaking when I was in art classes in France, or analytically this year when I had to analyze art with the support of an art critic opinions. For me, both ways were complementary to each other and drastically improved my understanding of art. Complementary in the sense that I could rely on my technical knowledge of art to understand the structure of a painting, and also analyze the story of the painting as Berger mentioned to fully understand the underlying message of an artwork.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Importance of Advance Directives Essay

The Importance of Advance Directives Tara J. DiDonato Axia College of University of Phoenix The Importance of Advance Directives While most people do not speak about end of life issues either because of their background or religion, it is not only for the elderly, we should all make our wishes known. According to the Pew Research Center, (January 2006), â€Å"42% of  Americans have had a friend or relative  suffer from a terminal illness or coma in the last five years and  for a majority of these people , the issue of withholding life sustaining treatment came up†. Although many people feel it is taboo, all adults over the age of 18 should think about what their healthcare wishes would be if they could not speak for themselves. These wishes should be documented in an advance directive, so that loved ones know what they are. Power of Communication According to the Mayo Clinic (2005), â€Å"The issues surrounding serious illness and death are not easy to discuss. Decisions are much easier on our loved ones if we have an advance directive in place before we are faced with a serious illness or accident†. Without communicating our wishes, we might find ourselves in a condition that we are unable to communicate the medical treatment we wish to receive, such as resuscitation or life support. Having a conversation with loved ones is important to clarify medical wishes. We should explain our wishes and explain how our values have shaped our decision. Types of Advance Directives According to the Mayo Clinic (2005), â€Å"Advance Directives are written instructions regarding your medical care preferences†. There are various types of advance directives, such as; a Living Will, Durable Power of Attorney, Healthcare Proxy and Do Not Resuscitate Order (DNR). Durable power of attorney and living wills have limitations, they do not include instructions for every situation, which means that we need to trust that the person we have named will make the decisions which are in our best interest and are what we would have wanted. A DNR order is a form that is commonly discussed with a physician. A DNR order alerts physicians and emergency medical personnel that if a patient’s heart stops beating or if the patient stops breathing, there should be no attempts to revive them. Another advance directive is a Healthcare Proxy (HCP). This document allows patients to choose an agent to act on their behalf if they are temporarily or permanently unable to make healthcare decisions on their own. According to Fell, Kukula and Taylor (2005), as with other advance directives, â€Å"it is very important to discuss, in detail, all of your wishes with your surrogate and make sure they clearly understand and are willing to make these decisions on your behalf† (p. 4). Everyone should have a voice, not just the elderly Advance directives are not just for the elderly, anyone over the age of 18 should have one. Unexpected situations can arise at any age and there might be end of life decisions that needs to be made. In the event that a person does not have an advance directive in place, according to Fell, et al. (2005), â€Å"you will receive medical care to the fullest extent appropriate for your condition†. Without an advance directive the patient might receive more treatment than he or she would have wanted. The biggest misconception about an advance directive is that people think that having one means â€Å"do not treat†, this is incorrect. Frequently used medical terms

Friday, September 27, 2019

Account for the fact that Britain was the richest country in Europe Essay

Account for the fact that Britain was the richest country in Europe between 1870-1914 - Essay Example Military might was a blessing in disguise for the country since it could later heavily rely on its pervasiveness and efficiency to trample on its predicaments and rise to the mighty British Empire. The author records that the British militarism at one point facilitated extraction of taxes such that it surpassed that rate applied by France especially during the Napoleonic Wars, at the height of the French dominion. This marked the protracted rise of Britain, to a greater height than the mightiest European power could afford. Within the short historical period of reorganization, Britain had amassed the power that a political giant needs to position itself in the world economy arena. In order for an economic giant to handle abundance, it has to undergo the relevant infrastructure modification one of which is political might according to Mann (1987). The British navy was soon the envy of any political establishment, and its might sooner enabled the tramping over the world in a successful manner than the other European compatriots and in a more timely opportunity. Militarism could enable the British leadership to set any financial agenda without fear of subjects’ protestation, for instance high taxation incidence that could go as high as 35 per cent. Tight financial controls of the territory coupled to the efficient and pervasive militarism were the necessary ingredients to pursue a takeover of France’s territories before anyone could notice. It could only take a well established country to absorb and integrate the mixed fortunes of eighteenth to nineteenth centuries’ shifts in economic cultures. Efficient stabilization during the changes occasioned by agrarian and industrial revolutions to maximum benefits needed a stable economy like Britain had evolved to be. Adopting the transitions while cautiously sticking to helpful practices of the former regime happened particularly well in Britain. By the mid nineteenth century, British economic

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Marketing (brand management question) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Marketing (brand management question) - Essay Example A classic example will be DHL. This company won the Platinum Award (Airfreight / Courier Service category) in the Superbrand 2005. Its brand statement is to enhance the customers' businesses by offering express delivery and logistics solutions based on strong local expertise combined with a vast global network. They keep to their words and thus winning glory in the industry. Different from the business markets, consumer markets will need more product features and advertising for their product. The audience for consumer markets branding involve the general public, in which the variance of needs and desires are greater than a business markets. Dell Computer is the example of this category of branding. It manages to position itself as a customize personal computer provider. This is collaborated by its successful supply chain management which makes it its brand identity. A "branded house" means a company which itself is a brand. The products come under this company will be the subset of the main brand. In branding, it gains level of acceptance and importance in short time due to the previous identification with the parent brand. Take for example, Hewlett Packard. This brand name covers products from laptops, desktops, Palmtops to even printers. All the products carry the same brand HP though they have names and are under different product category. It enters the market of palm tops easily despite the effort by Palm Plc. In contrary to that, a "house of brand" would be a company that markets a range of brands. A classic will be the Procter and Gamble (P&G). It comprises a lot of brands from different product categories such as Duracell the battery, Pantene the shampoo, Olay the beauty products, Mr. Clean the household cleaner, Braun the oral care products and many more. 3. Discuss the risks and benefit of brand extension. Research detailed examples of each. The benefit for a company to use a successful for brand extension could help it to enter a new product category. Examples are like the Fairy brand (Unilever) which extended from washing up liquid to washing powder and Lucozade which extends from a children's health drink to sports drink. This brought advantages to the company as it does not post doubt on the customers which presume the product as a newly launched products. It sustains the trust on a single brand to an extended product under the same brand. However, a failure in doing so could cause damage. Firstly, it is the dilution effect of the brand by products. The example is like when people talk about Fairy, it is not just only a washing liquid anymore. Secondly, it posts difficulties to connect with the parent brand names. Imagine if Colgate is marketing a candy product. It will be a disaster to the brand as the messages from the brand is inconsistent. 4. Discuss factors involved in successful brand differentiation. The key factors that could drive a successful brand differentiation are Desire for sustainable brand differentiation The company and its employees would need to have the same vision on brand differentiation as both are involve in making the strategy a success. Without management support or


PROGRESSING DEVELOPMENT IN MENTAL HEALTH NURSING - Essay Example In some situations the person may make a rigid determination not to eat. In some cases malnutrition might have taken place before such older people are admitted to the hospital. However, in some cases malnutrition may be a result of suboptimal gerontological care and management, medical or surgical interventions, the psychosocial effect of hospitalisation or a lack of proactive, therapeutic personcentred interventions purpose at promoting adequate food and nutrition.  An identified caused of malnutrition in older adult is the loss of f feeding abilityy which is a common problem for older adults (Kolodny & Malek 1991, Kayser-Jones 1992, Herne 1995, Kayser-Jones & Schell 1997a, Berry & Marcus 2000) especially those with dementia (Watson 2002, Manthorpe & Watson 2003); With cognitive impairment associated with Alzheimer’s disease and dementia, malnutrition is unavoidable. Such older adults do not have the cognitive ability to initiate or continue effective feeding strategies. I n contrast the older person with neuromotor disorders, such as stroke or Parkinson’s disease, may cognitively manage feeding but might not have the neuromotor skills to help chew or swallow effectively.  Moreover , the older people living in retirement and nursing homes need other support, including help with dressing, defecation and help with eating. The residents in the nursing homes need extensive nursing care and medical care as they may have diseases such as cancer, stroke sequelae or severe dementia (Hedin, 1993).   . Several studies show risk of malnutrition between 30% and 38% (Visvanathan et al. 2003); in older people (>65 years) who had recently moved to a residential home. However the problem of malnutrition still persists among older people living at home, who need help, as shown by the percentage of 3.5% reported by Thorslund et al (199). Alternatively 33–37% would be at risk of malnourished when they move home (Wikby et al. 2006).   Analysis   As we age, it is more important to look into our health and well being and the the prevention of malnutrition should be taken seriously among older people with dementia. It is much easier to prevent malnutrition among older people, rather than treating them after they have become ill from it, (Larsson et al. 1990, Payette 2005). Patients who receive information about the need for protein and energy intake and are active i have an increased intake (Pedersen 2005).   l. Malnutrition can have consequences both on the individuals affected and the carers by causing morbidity, hospital admission, delayed discharge and an increased dependence on social care and next of kin ( Van Nes et al. 2001 ).   Risk factors identified for malnutrition in earlier international studies are diseases (Beck et al. 1999, Payette 2005, Alberda et al. 2006, Chen et al. 2007), to much medications, low functional status (Payette 2005) symptoms of depression. Additionally, involuntary weight loss among older pe ople was associated with disease (Callen & Wells 2005, Payette 2005), inadequate nutrient intake and consequences for health (Payette 2005).  In 2001, a concept analysis of malnutrition in older people was first published in the Journal of Advanced Nursing, in which the critical attributes of malnutrition in older people were identified to include insufficient dietary intake, muscle wasting, weight loss, poor appetite and downward trajectory.

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Proposal Research Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Research Proposal Example This will immediately be followed with the drafting of chapter 1, which will have the preparation of research question, formation of aims and objectives, and the outline of the significance of the study in some of the highlighted areas. During the last week of drafting of the chapter one, the researcher will begin collecting secondary materials needed to undertake the literature review. The selection will be based on the research questions and specific objectives. The actual drafting of the literature review, which is the chapter two of the study, will take place within a period of three weeks. While drafting the literature review, the researcher will meet resource persons to share ideas. This will then be followed with the seeking of formal consent from the targeted setting for the study. As soon as the permission is granted, the researcher will go on using one week to form the sample size and conduct the actual collection of primary data in three weeks. Thereafter, two weeks will b e dedicated to putting the data collection into writing and then another two weeks will be used to draft the results and analysis. The conclusion and summary shall take one week to draft while the marking of the whole draft will take place in the very week that the conclusion is written. The final week will be dedicated to making corrections and reviewing the entire project report. Resources Needed Computers and Tablet PCs: The researcher will make use of computers and tablet PCs for the typing and researching aspect of the project. The tablet PC is particularly necessary so that the researcher can be on the go with whatever data that he comes across, where the computer may not be readily available or accessible. In effect, the tablet PC would allow for portability. Internet Access: The researcher will need constant access to internet for undertaking online research. Such online researches are going to be necessary for the completion of the proposed research since the researcher wil l be making use of both qualitative and quantitative research approaches and will, therefore, come to a stage where secondary data derived from the internet will be of much relevance. Statistical Software: Since aspects of the research may be quantitative, it is proposed that the need to use statistical software may emerge. Some of these statistical programs may include Microsoft Excel and SPSS. Interview Guide: The researcher shall prepare an exclusive interview guide, with which data shall be collected from members of the sample group. It has already been explained that members in the sample size are going to be made up of students in lower grades and so the best form of data collection instrument to use on them is one that will not make them read and produce written responses. Tape Recorders: In the course of the interview, it will be necessary and important that the researcher records the interactions that will go on between the researcher and the respondents. Because of this, t he researcher will have the need of a tape recorder to do the recording and later transcribe the results. E-Coli Meter: the E-Coli meter is going to be

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Law Enforcement's use of public surveys Research Paper

Law Enforcement's use of public surveys - Research Paper Example With this kind of understanding, this paper precisely investigates homicide of a mayor. Inclusively in the paper is an in depth description of the roles played in the investigation, the purpose and use of a psychological autopsy, the various steps undertaken in carrying out psychological autopsy, and recognition of the psychological issues experienced by the officers and families. Roles Played in the Investigation. The carrying out of the investigation will be made possible with the help of a police psychologist. In this sense, as a police psychologist there are several roles which need to be accomplished accordingly with immediate effect. It should be noted that, the police psychology is always concerned with solving issues particularly concerning to public safety in order to facilitate peaceful coexistence (Brian, 2006). Various roles played by the police psychologists in the investigation will involve the recognition of deception, undercover interviewing, behavioral analyses of th e scene, and report analyses. In order to come up with clear information concerning the death of the mayor, it will be important to recognize the deception involved following his death. This will in turn call for the undercover consultation which will be aimed towards facilitating the necessary and required information for the success of the investigation (Weiss, 2010). ... It is evident that, the whole investigation will rely on police psychologist who will be responsible for the bringing together of the aspects based on the investigative information (Cox, 2004). The roles of the police psychologists will therefore be based on presumptions and the manner in which rule enforcement executive can be sustained through scientific investigate. The Function and Use of a Psychological Autopsy Psychological autopsy simply refers to the process for examining an individual death through reconstructing what the individual â€Å"thought, felt, and did prior his death.† The process of reconstruction will be linked in the lead of the information collected from police reports, personal documents, head to head interviews with families and friends, and any person who had contact with the mayor before his death (Jack, 2011). In our case, psychological autopsy will rely on these facts in order to be in position to identify the gunshot wound on the head which could be the reason for the death of the mayor. As it comes from the denotation, the major function of psychological autopsy therefore is to appraise more exactly the death procedure of the decedent and therefore elucidate the concluding categorization of the demise manner in the death official document. In this sense, the process functions in determining the reason for the death by investigating the bodily condition of the deceased (Weiss, 2010). In instances where the way of death is unsolved and unclear, psychological autopsy helps the medical expert in clearing up the secrecy. The gathered information indicates that, before becoming the mayor he was a chief and hence was very close to several officers and administrators.

Monday, September 23, 2019

Case Study 4 (Business Intelligence ) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Case Study 4 (Business Intelligence ) - Essay Example Similarly, trends and subsequent strategies can be developed for customers using multiple contact channels like call centers, website or mobile internet (Freeland 2003, p. 105). One such organization doing exemplary work in this regard is Ebay- world’s largest online marketplace which also uses information systems to attract and retain customers and has developed technology enabled customer relationship management tools. Question 2 Cross selling is a sales technique where suggestions and recommendations to a customer are made based on his previous purchase, recorded preferences and other details. Use of data mining is of paramount importance in cross selling technique undertaken by 1-800-Flowers. Related product or service can only be recommended only when previously recorded customer taste and preference is available and which matches the expectation of the customer. For instance, a customer who purchases a specific kind of flowers regularly from 1-800-Flowers can be reminded of latest offers and related product and services in flowers section.

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Palestine and Israel Essay Example for Free

Palestine and Israel Essay Before a conflict takes place, there is usually a disagreement between the concerned parties. In the case of the Israel and Palestine, aggressive dialogue has never been set to foster talk rather than war. When this is absolutely put in to practice, the result will be successful owing to the fact that three will be a less possibility of the occurrence of the war therefore saving the lives of the people that would have been lost during the war. Conflict basically entails a situation where two parties are not in agreement about an issue. In this case the parties usually engage in confrontation therefore limiting any diplomatic relations between the two sides. From the perspective of Israel, Palestinians are considered as caring out terrorist activities, therefore in order to cub such activities, they have to distort and prevent them from doing so. This forces them to deploy troops to Gaza to try and stop this kind of terrorist attacks to its citizens. This however ought not to be the case since the deployment of the troop without talk signifies that one party is not in any attempt tom embrace dialogue which would have solved the problem. Terrorism as considered by Israel is an act that leads to violence or a type of violence. It is the experience of fear or terror as the proximate intend of that brutality. .Terrorism may also be defined as the performance of acts of violence directed against a state or a group of people with the aim of intimidating them so as to achieve ones political goals. It entails making other people suffer so as to send certain messages to the relevant authorities about dissatisfactions or certain grievances. War is not justified at all in the case of the isrealites and the Palestine since they all suffer the consequences. For whichever reason a group of people or an individual decides to perform acts of terror, it just can’t be justified because there are better ways of solving disputes. For an action to be termed as justified, its end result should be good enough to justify the act. War is not because the end result is fear, frustration and terror to a certain group of people. Taking cases like the recent Israel invasion into Gaza is not justified since many innocent lives were lost and property destroyed. That is not a morally right end result since it only leads to suffering and misery to the innocent Palestinians who were caught in the commotion. This coupled with the fact that the objective is not always achieved this way, renders war inappropriate and should not be given a chance at all. War only victimizes people who are very innocent. All these victims only act as objects being used by a certain group of people to achieve their own unique absurd missions. The innocent victims who perish are used to terrify a certain group of people or governments. The ones who are sent to commit such an activity are also being used as objects by their masters to achieve their objectives. They are human beings and most often than not they end up perishing together with the innocent victims. There are better ways of settling personal differences without necessarily having to express ones frustrations through taking away innocent lives During the confrontation between the two sides, war crimes are usually committed where there is usually a breech of contract set by the international organizations about activities not to performed on the civilians,. This entails aspect that is carried upon with the main intentions of causing aggravation or harm to the immediate neighbor not necessarily for revenge purposes. When the Israelites and the Palestine engage in war, there is usually destruction of property and the loss of lives of civilians a factor that clearly results to psychological problems to the people who are caught up in the cross fire . In this case, those affected usually end up suffering and as a result the economic growth of the countries are hindered. Within the destruction of the facilities such as schools most of the youth and children end up engaging in a reengage mission and this in turn results to their influx in more terrorism attacks (Verhoeven,J eds) . Their can be understating within the two group in the event that all the previous are laid forward and analyzed critically through dialogue since by engaging in war, no sounding solution will be achieved. In the event that there is peaceful negotiation within the two groups, the society will totally benefit since there will be absence of the destruction of property and the two groups will embrace each others culture and live together in harmony . The society will also develop economically owing to the absence of sanctions that hinder a particular side from transaction and trading with the other. When things are clearly talked out between the Israelites and the Palestine it is depicted that there will be an agreement if each side decides to forget what was in the past and follow concepts that will sustain the future of the children of the two countries (Simon Schuster) . On the other hand, dialogue is the key aspect to a successful ceasefire since all the two sides will be able to come up with their proposal and at the end of the day a consensus can be attained if they are all willing to let loose what was seen as a conflicting situation. . In a normal circumstance the issue of dialogue when there is conflict always solves the problems, since human being are bound to conflict and at the same time they can reach an understanding. When the palatines and the isrealites embrace this aspect, the truth can be clearly seen therefore at the end of the day the two sides have to agree on whether to adopt the changes or not. Talking other than war on the other hand will shows the intenders of the war on the negative impact that can be produced in the event that it happens. When a person is convinced that when he or she goes to war death will be the consequence, then resulting result will be a change in that thought. â€Å"One will definitely consider his or her life other than death† (Barry). Therefore, the use of dialogue is a more concerned issue. In this scenario talking outshines the idea of war since, with appropriate dialogue between two parties at war, there will be no or a small chance of the occurrence of the war. Conclusion Talking thins out other than war is the only solution that will make it possible for most of the people who might be caught up during the commotion to be safe. In reality, the safety of and individual is very vital. talking other than war definitely is a good idea since the Palestine and the isrealites will be able to look back on how the situation has be devastated as a result of the war and in return think of building and sorting their issues without indulging in war. The impact of war carries a social problem since with total destruction of the facilities that people are able to obtain their basic commodities, lives are usually lost. In some case there is disease outbreak and food shortages therefore resulting to starvation of the affected individuals. Work cited Barry, R The Truth about Syria, Palgrave MacMillan, 2007 – Verhoeven,J eds. : Peace creation in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, Lynne Reinner, London and Bolder, CO, 20 Simon Schuster,. The peace within Palestine not apartheid, 2006 Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Brief History retrieved on 23rd February from http://www. mideastweb. org/briefhistory. htm The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict in a Nutshell on 23rd February from http://www. mideastweb. org/nutshell. htm A Synopsis of the Israel/Palestine Conflict on 23rd February from http://www. ifamericansknew. org/history/

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Differences Between Community And Zero Tolerance Policing Criminology Essay

Differences Between Community And Zero Tolerance Policing Criminology Essay Community policing is an oxymoron, for if the police could serve the whole community there would be little point in having a police force at all fn 1. However for the purposes of this essay community policing will have the meaning which is ascribed to it by the Home Office. It is seen as a key and permanent element of reforms to make the police service more citizen focused. The aim is to build a more responsive, locally accountable and citizen-focused police service through a programme to transform policing at a local level to meet the needs of communities. dddddd  [2]   The notion of zero tolerance policing was inspired by the apparent success of the approach taken in NY, and a variation of it-confident policing-pursued by DCI Mallon in Hartlepool as well as others within the UK. The notion of zero tolerance policing is based upon the broken window theory  [3]  and the conviction that the best way to tackle serious crime is to tackle disorder in which policies such as the community safety order, parental responsibility order, composite offence and final warning all have a role to play. It is arguable that this policy adopts a social exclusion rather than inclusion policy approach towards community safety. The result may be that healthy urban futures are established but not necessarily all inhabitants will benefit. Crime, disorder, anti-social behaviour and nuisance may all be particularly unpleasant but it is not clear if placing such a strong emphasis upon criminalisation and enforcement is the best way of tackling the problems contributing to and created by those behaviours. It leaves very little space for more constructive actions and even where it is possible to do so, they take place on terms which strengthen the criminalisation of the discourse of social policy so that the measures end up being more about containment and control within the community.  [4]   In 1996 the London Metropolitan Police carried out a zero tolerance initiative in partnership with the Transport Police, City of London Police and local authority councils. This initiative involved active confrontational measures to deal with homeless beggars, drug dealers, prostitutes and pimps who were congregating at the St Pancreas Railway Station. The result of the action was the temporary displacement of the undesirables to adjoining neighbourhoods until the control measures were withdrawn. The benefits included over 400 arrests of drug dealers and a raising of the quality of life for people in the area (Leigh et al 1998; 73) A recent Home Office Study of policing styles noted that Cleveland Police responsible for Middlesborough remain convinced that zero tolerance is compatible with community policing in a problem orientated policing form. Cleveland police viewed it as a short term prelude to the implementation of longer term measures in high crime areas where fear of, and intimidation by a minority of residents is having a detrimental effect (Leigh et al 1998, 26 and Romeanes 1998). The statutory enforcement powers for zero tolerance are contained within the Crime and Disorder Act with its emphasis on taking back control over unruly neighbourhoods and so it is not unreasonable or unlikely that the Home Office would give the initiative a qualified endorsement although it chooses to term it order maintenance (Jordan 1998 72). Zero tolerance style of policing is popular with a majority of the public who se the police as being tough on crime. In July 2003 an ICM Poll for the think-tank Reform questioned public support for zero tolerance comprising a highly visible policing on the streets bearing down heavily on anti social behaviour and vandalism. 83% thought that this would be a good idea, with over 50% thinking it would be a very good idea. Does Safer Neighbourhood Policing Help p 62-63 Zero Tolerance does have the negative repercussions of souring police community relations and can antagonise racial tensions in neighbourhoods. This is in conflict with the philosophy and practice of community policing which depends upon strong support from the public and discretion from police officers, proactive policing, problem solving and an intimate knowledge of the neighbourhood in which the police are operating, acquiring intelligence and building trust. Officers viewed discretion as an important part of community policing. A firearms officer was outside a school monitoring traffic and flagged down a middle aged man who was not wearing a seat belt. He managed to resist the temptation to alienate the police service further by scoring 5 easy points and after some advice, he let the man proceed on his way. A few months later the firearms officer found himself in an unoccupied house where a gun had been found in very suspicious circumstances. The same man as in the seat belt incident approached him and provided invaluable information which saved many hours of police investigation. The officer maintained that the man assisted him because he had dealt with him leniently in the seat belt incident and the officer wondered if the man would have assisted had he not used his discretion in the earlier incident? The officer said that police should be left to use their common sense on the streets.  [5]  Cited in The Public and Police by Harrie t Sergeant page 52 Is the answer for the two concepts to sit side by side? It would appear that the two concepts are not mutually exclusive and there is a need for both within certain communities. A police system based on consensus and working in and with the community seems the better option for the community as a whole. This method allows the community to be involved in the law enforcement process and encourages the community to be involved in its own safety by the informal policing of its on neighbourhood, collecting intelligence on suspected trouble makers to assist the police. Community policing allows the community to be a partner with the police in crime reduction and as such are more receptive to police initiatives. Zero tolerance should be used selectively in reducing certain types of deviant behaviour such as anti social behaviour and also for knife and carrying weapons, but its success is limited to selected areas. Its use should be limited to a short sharp approach and it should also be seen as a short term policy rather than overall police policy. It has been shown that a tactic of the targeting of repeat offenders and victims, a high level police visibility in some crime hot spots, and problem orientated strategies and police initiatives have worked. Zero tolerance style of policing can impact on human rights and liberties but it is popular with most members of the law abiding community and politicians as it demonstrates that the state is seen to be tough on crime. Of course whatever is the better option for the community depends on whether you look at the community as a whole or a particular section. If one block of flats is being terrorised by anti social behaviour and zero tolerant tactics are adopted to deal with it, it will not be considered beneficial to the whole community if the perpetrators are merely dispersed to a neighbouring block within the same community. What is best for the community can also be said to be the eradication of crime in the first place, so that the causes are addressed (community policing) rather than the symptons (zero tolerance). It would appear that there is a place for a zero tolerance approach within community policing itself particularly if the community is kept informed of the police approach so that it is included in adopting the policy. So although it may be seen to some members of the community as the better style of policing overall it is better to have the community policing system which is a softly softly approach to law enforcement underpinning the relationship between the police and the community.

Friday, September 20, 2019

How to Interpret a Nursing Essay Question.

How to Interpret a Nursing Essay Question. Nursing essay questions are typically focused on key areas of clinical practice, either in relation to the needs of a client, or to an area of practice. Most nursing questions ask students how to respond to particular scenarios. As such, the student needs to identify the key words in the essay question, and ensure that their answer contains reference to the key words. Some questions require the student to use a reflective model to review their own practice, or the practice involved in a particular case. Ideally, the student should identify the model, and structure the essay around the sub-headings or concepts contained within that model. Most essay questions will also require the student to make good use of the evidence surrounding a topic or area of practice. Therefore, the student is expected to use a range of sources of primary literature to answer the question. Primary literature would include primary research articles, review articles, debate and discussion articles, and articles which provide case studies or reflections on practice. Some attempt should be made to comment on the quality of the literature relating to the topic. Evidence can include not only evidence about clinical issues, such as drugs or treatments, but also evidence surrounding key elements of nursing care, governance, nursing philosophies and models, and even nurse educatio n. To discuss an area of practice is not simply to present the evidence for and against the theories and practice points shown in the literature, it is to explore it from all angles. Nursing practice is based on concepts of health and illness, interprofessional working, medical versus social models of health and health care, governance and care planning, and management. Therefore, interpreting the question involves identifying what elements of practice are required to be examined. Usually, a nursing question asks the student to explore the concept, or treatment, its application, its implications, and, crucially, elements of the role of the nurse. Identifying these, and making recommendations for practice, drawing conclusions about practice, and recommending areas for future research, are key to answering a nursing essay question. In addition to these framework concepts, nursing essays are very much related to the concept of professionalism, and to the ethics of nursing care and practice. Professionalism is enshrined in the publications of the nurse’s governing body, which depends on which country the nurse is practising in. It is also enshrined in the ethics and philosophies of nursing. Current trends in nursing can be seen in the choices made about research methodologies, and in reactions to government documents, policies and strategies. Therefore, a good nursing essay will include reference to relevant policies and strategies, but will (usually) link these to the patient-centred models that dominate nursing care. Nursing questions must be interpreted in the light of the assessment, which is usually based on the module or unit of learning, the area of practice, such as community nursing, paediatric nursing, surgical nursing, elderly care, or the like, and usually relates to some of the concepts and ideas described above. But more than anything, interpreting the question means answering the question as set. Using a model of reflection that you have come across, such as Gibbs, Johns, Schon or Borton, reflect upon a practice experience from your last clinical placement. Provide a summary of the situation, case or critical incident, and also provide a rationale for choosing this topic as the focus of your reflection. Identify the areas of professional practice that relate to your role as a nurse, and critically evaluate your actions and those of your professional colleagues. Develop a plan to improve practice in relation to the experience and what you have learned from reflecting on it. Critical issues in nursing practice – using case studies to explore evidence-based practice. Using a case study derived from your own clinical practice experience, explore the provision of care for an adult with complex health needs. Outline your assessment of their needs, and include as an appendix a full care plan to meet their needs. Provide a rationale for your care plan, and a proposed timescale for evaluation. Evaluate the evidence base for practice in relation to the identified care needs, and in the light of this, critically analyse the care provided in relation to quality, patient-centredness and best practice. Evidence for nursing practice. Identify one aspect of nursing practice in relation to the acutely ill adult which you wish to investigate. Carry out a literature search and identify two articles of primary research which relate to this aspect of nursing practice. Carry out a full critical analysis of the quality of these articles, using a recognised framework for analysis, and in the light of research theories, identify the value of the studies for applying to your sphere of practice. Identify any problems or challenges in implementing this evidence into practice. Interprofessional working for nursing practice. Identify the healthcare/multidisciplinary team involved in the care of a patient of your choice, and indicate what the purpose of their involvement would be. Outline the professional responsibility and sphere of practice of each professional, and discuss the areas of practice where their roles (and yours) might overlap, exploring the potential consequences of this. Discuss the issues and challenges surrounding interprofessional communication and working in relation to the identified patient. Identify any strategies or guidelines which can be used to improve interprofessional communication and collaborative working, and evaluate these in relation to the patient and the healthcare context. Management in nursing the acute adult. In relation to your current placement, identify a nurse who acts in a leadership or management capacity, and outline their role and the clinical context. Analyse their role, actions and responsibilities in the light of leadership and management theories, with specific reference to accountability. Relate this analysis to the role of the nurse and the Nursing and Midwifery Council rules and codes of conduct. Identify the strengths and weaknesses of their leadership or management activities, and make recommendations for improvement.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Blue Jeans, the Ultimate American Icon Essay example -- History

Blue Jeans, the Ultimate American Icon Gold was discovered in California in 1849. This resulted in more than eighty thousand American’s rushing to California. The pioneering spirit spread and by 1890, the West’s population reached nearly 17 million. The west became the most racially diverse part of the country. All were in search of a better life for themselves and their families, seeking what would become known as the American Dream. During this time innovation and creation were prompting remarkable growth in industry. New products that made life more tolerable were spreading to all classes of people. One popular item of clothing that can trace its roots to the Gold Rush is blue jeans. Blue jeans grew out of necessity but they now represent the spirit of the west and the ideals of America. Blue jeans are seen all across the world as an American symbol, perhaps the ultimate American icon. The best way to understand why blue jeans are revered is to first learn about their history. The history of blue jeans began with Levi Strauss. In 1847 Levi Strauss emigrated from Bavaria, now part of southern Germany, to New York. Once news of the Gold Rush reached New York, Levi Strauss packed up his belongings and headed west. In 1853, Levi Strauss reached San Francisco California, where he officially became an American citizen. Strauss was not there to search for gold. He moved west to open a branch of the family’s dry good business. He did business with many miners and began to understand their needs. A miner’s foremost need was for stronger clothing, especially pants. Levi Strauss began making pants, known then as waist overalls. Levi Strauss contacted his family in New York and told them of his new venture. He asked them to order as much canvas as possible. Strauss experimented with all aspects of pant making. He tested different materials and found denim to be the strongest. He tried many different dyes. He decided on a deep-blue indigo-blue, since it was easy to replicate the shade. With the indigo-blue color and denim fabric combination blue jeans were born. The new pants took on a new name, denim blue jeans. They were tough, reasonably priced, and lasted longer than any pant before. Blue jeans accommodated the lifestyle of the hard-workers such as miners, rancher, farmers, railroad workers, and teachers. Life out west was tough, work was hard, and da... ... a denim art contest in 1973. The winning pants were shown off to the public on an 18-month tour of American museums. In the 70s, more styles of jeans were emerging. Bell-bottoms first appeared in 1970. Until 1970, blue jeans were designed to fit men. That changed in the early 70s when the first jeans made to fit women were introduced. The popularity of blue jeans allowed Levi Strauss and Company to become the largest clothing maker in the world during 1977. Blue jeans continued to be a popular item through the 1980’s, which is often considered the decade of designer jeans. Since an increasing number of companies were creating jeans, labels became an important element of the pants. Jeans were fashionable, and worn more for look than for durability. Blue jeans remained a popular item of clothing through out the remainder of the 20th century, and into the 21st. Levi Strauss and Company’s sales for 2001 were 4.3 billion dollars. The styles are constantly changing to accommodate the needs and desires of the consumers. Blue jeans were originally created as a uniform for the lower class worker, but they have become a symbol of American ingenuity, ambition, individuality, and success.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Essay on the Religious Right and The Handmaids Tale :: Handmaids Tale Essays

The Religious Right and The Handmaid's Tale The Handmaid's Tale by Margaret Atwood is set in the near future in the Republic of Gilead, formerly the United States. A religious extremist right-wing movement assassinated the president and congress and took complete control of the government. The constitution was suspended and liberties revoked. Women found themselves completely subordinated in the new regime, generally assigned to the legal care of a male "guardian." Offred, the main character of the story, was fortunate in many ways. Because she was still fertile, she was not branded an "Unwoman" and sent to the "Colonies," where thousands of individuals deemed undesirable by the government were sent to toil in toxic plants and agricultural camps. Instead, her fate was to become a "handmaid." Birthrates were declining in the republic, so a fertile female became a prized commodity. Since Offred had been divorced prior to the revolution, the religious leaders controlling the government saw fit to take her from her second husband and child and assign her to a "guardian," a high ranking male. Her sole purpose in life with the guardian was to become pregnant. Once a month an insemination ceremony would take place, during which the guardian would attempt to impregnate Offred while his wife read passages from the bible to them. All three remained clothed and there was no passion involved. In the course of her life as a handmaid, Offred discovers more about Gilead. Her secondary duty (after getting pregnant) was to go into town each day and purchase food. She gradually makes contact with another handmaid, Ofglen, who introduces her to the underground movement against the republic. She eventually becomes involved in a number of illegal activities, and eventually is forced to try and escape. The Handmaid's Tale is really about the role of women in society. If it were possible to eliminate women from Gilead, it seems that the republic would have done so. Instead, they are reduced into doing the one thing for which Gilead can find no substitute -- producing children. They are so reduced that they cannot even feel passion or enjoy sex. Infertile women have it even worse; they are not considered to be women at all, and are deported or killed. The message is that women are needed to continue humanity but that they are to have no other role in the society that they allow to exist. Essay on the Religious Right and The Handmaid's Tale :: Handmaid's Tale Essays The Religious Right and The Handmaid's Tale The Handmaid's Tale by Margaret Atwood is set in the near future in the Republic of Gilead, formerly the United States. A religious extremist right-wing movement assassinated the president and congress and took complete control of the government. The constitution was suspended and liberties revoked. Women found themselves completely subordinated in the new regime, generally assigned to the legal care of a male "guardian." Offred, the main character of the story, was fortunate in many ways. Because she was still fertile, she was not branded an "Unwoman" and sent to the "Colonies," where thousands of individuals deemed undesirable by the government were sent to toil in toxic plants and agricultural camps. Instead, her fate was to become a "handmaid." Birthrates were declining in the republic, so a fertile female became a prized commodity. Since Offred had been divorced prior to the revolution, the religious leaders controlling the government saw fit to take her from her second husband and child and assign her to a "guardian," a high ranking male. Her sole purpose in life with the guardian was to become pregnant. Once a month an insemination ceremony would take place, during which the guardian would attempt to impregnate Offred while his wife read passages from the bible to them. All three remained clothed and there was no passion involved. In the course of her life as a handmaid, Offred discovers more about Gilead. Her secondary duty (after getting pregnant) was to go into town each day and purchase food. She gradually makes contact with another handmaid, Ofglen, who introduces her to the underground movement against the republic. She eventually becomes involved in a number of illegal activities, and eventually is forced to try and escape. The Handmaid's Tale is really about the role of women in society. If it were possible to eliminate women from Gilead, it seems that the republic would have done so. Instead, they are reduced into doing the one thing for which Gilead can find no substitute -- producing children. They are so reduced that they cannot even feel passion or enjoy sex. Infertile women have it even worse; they are not considered to be women at all, and are deported or killed. The message is that women are needed to continue humanity but that they are to have no other role in the society that they allow to exist.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Immanuel Kant: Duty and Reason Essay

The action of an individual is said to depend on lots of factors. The value of these actions is weighed based on the different point of views of humans. Immanuel Kant, a philosopher, classifies the moral worth of an action through the use of two concepts; duty and reason. Acting based on duty and reason can be better understand by looking at these cases from Kant’s point of view and by means of thoroughly analyzing the arguments presented to consider an acts moral worth. Considering the case that a husband loves his wife because he loves her such that he has an inclination to be faithful to her, Kant’s view for this example will be that this case has no moral worth. For Kant, the foundation of morality is duty. The factor that causes human to be moral beings is their duty and the factor to be considered in determining the moral of an act is the persons will to follow his duty. (www. ipf. edu, n. d. ) On the other hand, a husband’s act to remain loyal to his wife as a matter of duty, although he finds it decidedly unpleasant will be considered by Kant to have a moral worth. A moral action has a moral worth not because of the effect of the action itself but because of the value that the action done according to duty that was set by the society. (Abbott, 1907) For Kant, the fact that the action is done only for duty alone is in itself makes the action to contain a moral worth. (Herman, 1981) It refers mainly to duty being implemented through the law that makes an action of moral worth. (www. philosophypages. com, n. d. ) The moral worth of both cases can be better understood through differentiating acting in accordance with duty and acting from duty. Acting in accordance with duty has no moral worth since it is just an act that conforms to duty as guided by self-interest. Acting from duty, on the other hand, is an act that is done because the duty is requiring it. It means that actions will only have a moral worth if they are performed from duty while those actions that are taken as caused by self-interest that accords with duty for whatever reason, have no moral worth. In the example of a husband that loves his wife due to two reasons, we can say that the first case, which is loving the wife because the husband has an inclination to love her is considered by Kant to be of no moral worth since the husband does not love his wife from duty. He just loves the wife because it is his self-interest that motivates him to love her. In that way, he loves according to self-interest that just so happen to be in accord with loving from duty. Thus, he is loving his wife in accordance with duty and is thus it has no moral worth. For the second example of loving which is loving his wife because it is his duty as a husband even if he finds it unpleasant, this act has moral worth for Kant because the act is done out of the need to follow duty. The husband loves his wife because it should be his action towards his wife as it is set by the laws and rule of the society. Even if he will not gain self-pleasure from it, he is still doing it because it is his duty as husband to love his wife. Thus, he is acting from duty and his act contains moral worth for Kant. Upon understanding Kant’s philosophy, I can say that he has a good point on why he believed that the moral worth of an act is based on the duty that forces a person to commit such act. The good thing about his account of moral worth is that an act can be considered to have a moral worth if that is done without self-interest but is done only as dictated by duty. His philosophy is good in a sense because it can assess the moral worth of a person in terms of the responsibility that he should carry and not only acting as a result of his own decision in order to gain pleasure from it. However, I disagree with him. I believe that if an act is done whether for the sake of following your duty or the laws implemented by the society as based from their reasoning, an act can still have a moral worth depending also on its effect on the society. For me, I think that what Kant is trying to say is that the moral worth in different cases that we have to make a decision or an act lies on the will to follow the duty itself. It only means that the one of moral worth is the ability to follow duties or the rules and not the act itself. If we are doing something even if we can just derived pleasure or get something out of it, as long as we don’t step on the rights of others and can contribute to our society, our acts can still have moral worth. In line with this, I can say that acting from duty is morally right as well as acting according to duty as long as our interests do not conflict with the violation of the rights of another people. I think that pursuing self-interest that will lead to the good of other people, as in the case of Mother Teresa, is morally worth. The self-interest in that sense does not conflict with the violation of the rights of others, but instead, it leads to the good of the needy. Hence, it still has its moral worth. For example, a lifeguard is saving the lives of drowning people, even if he doesn’t want too and what he is doing is just a burden for him has a moral worth. Also, a lifeguard that is saving the lives of drowning people and expecting in return that he will receive a word of thank you from the people that he saved still has a moral worth. This is because, I think, that no matter what motivates you to do an act as long as it can help others and does not bypass human rights, that act has a moral worth. In the case of a lifeguard, saving people as caused by duty and saving people as caused by an expectation to receive a word of thanks are both morally correct. It is because the fact that the lifeguard has saved a life no matter what is the reason that makes me considered it to have a moral worth. I also believe that morality is subjective depending on a person’s bringing up, culture, experiences and way of thinking. One act can be of moral value to a person but for some, may be the same act has little or no moral worth at all. That is, morality lies on each one of us and that the effect that it can make to ourselves and especially to our society will greatly dictates its moral worth. Different societies may evaluate the same act to have a different moral worth. A way to explain this is by looking at the case of Eskimos. For Eskimos, offering their wives to have sex with a guest is a polite action as a way of entertaining a visitor. In their way, their act has a moral worth because they are acting from duty. However, if a wife from other country will ask his husband that she wants to have sex with their guest as a way of entertaining the guest, the action is resulting from self-interest and not from duty that is dictated by the culture. Thus, it does not have a moral worth. This explains that the value of moral worth is subjective to culture, and to the specific society itself. Thus, in conclusion, I can say that the first case of loving a wife that was mentioned, which is loving as motivated by inclination, has moral worth because he is still doing his responsibility or duty even if he really wants to do it as directed by his emotion. The second case, which is loving because that is dictated by duty, also contains a moral value, although lesser than the first one. For me, it’s moral worth is less than the first because he is not loving his wife whole heartedly but only loving her because he is required by his duty. I think that in general, Kant’s theory is good but is lacking in a certain aspect that greatly affects the action of human, which is emotions. This is because aside from intellectual reasoning, we also have emotions and that these emotions can also dictate us on how we are going to act. Whether we act from duty or we act in accordance with duty as directed by self-interest which is controlled by emotions, our action can both have moral worth. Thus, in summary Kant had contributed a view about the reason for one’s act in terms of the assessment of the action. However, it is limited and there must be other factors to be considered in assessing the moral value of one’s act, in which his theory must contain. Works Cited Abbott, T. K. (1907). Immanuel Kant Duty Is Prior to Happiness. Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals. Retrieved November 22, 2007 from http://books. google. com/books? id=Y2oIobRXrWIC&pg=PA92&ots=lqnR0qrkHw&dq= On+the+Va lue+of+Acting+from+the+Motive+of+Duty,&ei=wT9FR63gI4KktAPBgYXbBg&sig=Z8 QYGzRw_L9lc eC8Xkj1_JOZjKA Herman, Barbara, (1981). On the Value of Acting from the Motive of Duty. The Philosophical Review. Volume 90, No. 3 pp 359-382. Retrieved November 22, 2007 from http://links. jstor. org/sici? sici=0031- 8108(198107)90%3A3%3C359%3AOTVOAF%3E2. 0. CO%3B2- B www. ipfw. edu. (n. d. ). Retrieved November 22, 2007 from http://209. 85. 173. 104/search? q=cache:_3cincyqJb0J:www. ipfw. edu/phil/faculty/Esteve z/Kant. ppt+Duty+and+Reason-+immanuel+Kant&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us www. philosophypages. com. (n. d. ). Kant: The Moral Order. Retrieved November 22, 2007 from http://www. philosophypages. com/hy/5i. htm.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Battle of Gettysburg and Union

The Battle of Gettysburg was the turning point of the American Civil War. This is the most famous and important Civil War Battle that occurred on July 1st-3rd 1863 in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. More importantly Gettysburg was the clash between the two major American Cultures of their time: the North and the South. The Confederacy had an agricultural economy producing tobacco, corn, and cotton, with many large plantations owned by a few very rich white males. These owners lived off the labor of sharecroppers and slaves, charging high dues for use of their land.The Southern or Confederate Army was made up of a group of white males fighting for their independence from federal northern dictates. The Union economy was based on manufacturing, and even the minorities in the North were better off than those in the South most of the time. The Northern politicians wanted tariffs, and a large army. The Southern plantation owners wanted the exact opposite. The South was fighting against a governm ent because they thought they were being treated unfair. An analysis of the Battle of Gettysburg reveals one challenge facing the Union and the Confederacy was unjustified taxes and slavery.The battle began on July 1, 1863. The Battle of Gettysburg began when the Confederate cavalry ran into the Union horsemen. Both sides then called for backup. The Confederates’ back up arrived first; they now had twice as many men as the union. Soon after Union General John Reynolds arrived, he was shot in the back of the head and killed instantly. They confederates drove the Union south of town. Everyone set up for battle and waited until day two. The excitement of the battle began on day two, July 2, 1863. By morning, 150 thousand Union and Confederate troops had joined at little Pennsylvania town.The Confederates occupied a line west of the Emmetsburg Road, along the Seminary Ridge. While the Union men waited along Cemetery Ridge. The union had an advantage because; Cemetery Ridge was a somewhat more elevated. On day two the Union won overall. The following events occured on day two: Little Round Top, Devil’s Den, Battle of the Wheatfield, Battle of the Peach Orchard, and the Battle of Cemetery Hill. The number of casualties in the Battle of Gettysburg was enormous compared to any war. The casualties of just day two are the union at 8,750 and the confederate at 6,500. One of the major events from day two was the Devil’s Den.It is unique because the Confederate won which was very uncommon. â€Å"Devil’s Den is the name given to a ridge strewn with large boulders south of the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, and about 500 yards west of Little Round Top on the Battle of Gettysburg battlefield. The origin of the name is uncertain. On July 2, 1863, the second day of the Battle of Gettysburg, the area around Devil’s Den saw intense fighting as part of General Robert E. Lee’s flank attacks, when Lieutenant General James Longstreet†™s Confederate corps attacked the divisions of Major General Daniel Sickles’ III Corps of the Army of the Potomac.Some 5,500 Confederates from Major General John Bell Hood’s division ultimately captured Devil’s Den from 2,400 defenders drawn from Major General David Bell Birney’s division. It was one of the few Southern successes in that day’s fighting. Total casualty estimates are over 800 for the Union, more than 1,800 among the Confederates. † (The Devil's Den) This event/location is also significant because Major General John Bell Hood was wounded and was forced to yield his command. There were two main locations of the Battle of Gettysburg, they were Little and Big Round Top.Little Round top is the smaller of the two. It is located between Taneytown and Emmetsburg roads. At the time of the battle â€Å"it was known locally by various names including Sugar Loaf. † (Little Round Top) Major General Governor K. Warren, chief enginee r of the Army of the Potomac, rushed troops to Little Round Top; they arrived minutes before the Confederates did. The 20th Maine Regiment charged late in the battle, which foiled a flanking attempt by the 15th Alabama. Overall the battle at Little Round top the union won. The final day of battle was on July 3, 1863.Both the Confederates and the Union had their plains of winning the battle. Robert E. Lee from the Confederate side decided they should charge into the middle of the Union line and break the line into two. When Robert E. Lee decided on the Plan to charge through the middle of the Union line Major General George Pickett knew it would not succeed. He tried to talk Lee out of it, but Lee instructed Pickett to charge. Major Picket followed these orders. This is known as Pickett’s Charge. The charge took place â€Å"between Seminary and Cemetery ridges, Gettysburg battlefield, Pennsylvania. (Pickett’s Charge)While all of this was occurring â€Å"General Slocum attacked Confederate troops at Culp’s Hill to regain territory loss the previous day. This fight lasted for a good 8 hours finally forcing the Confederates to retreat off of Culp’s Hill. † (Gettysburg Day Three) In the end the Union won. â€Å"Culp’s Hill was the right-most flank of the â€Å"fishhook† line formed by Union Army troops during the Battle of Gettysburg and saw fighting all three days of the battle. Culp’s Hill has two rounded peaks with a narrow saddle between them.Although heavily wooded and unsuitable for artillery, the main peak of Culp’s Hill rises substantially above the surrounding landscape, at a little over 200 feet above the town of Gettysburg and 127 feet higher than Cemetery Hill. With Baltimore Pike, critical for Union Army supplies and preventing Confederate advance on Baltimore or Washington, DC, to the east and Confederates approaching from Rock Creek to the west, Culp’s Hill was critical to Union strategy. † (Culp’s Hill) The Union had two main places throughout the three days they were located. Cemetery Hill was the site of Army’s weaponry.The hill is north of Cemetery Ridge. The defense of the Union line begins to â€Å"to turn east to form the â€Å"fishhook† line to Culp’s Hill. † (Cemetery Hill) Cemetery Ridge is about two miles long and 40feet above surrounding land. The Confederate Army launched attacked the Union many times at Cemetery Ridge. These attacks took place on day two and three. On each attack they were forced to fall back on each occasion. On November 19, 1863 Abraham Lincoln gave a famous speech called The Gettysburg Address. The speech was a dedication to the Soldier’s National Cemetery.Soldier’s National Cemetery is a cemetery for Union soldiers killed at the Battle of Gettysburg. The speech is as follows: â€Å"Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new natio n, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live.It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate — we cannot consecrate — we cannot hallow — this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced.It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the g reat task remaining before us — that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion — that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain — that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom — and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. † (Gettysburg Address Text) The actual main speaker of the night was Edward Everett. He spoke for two hours all from memory. Finally, the Battle of Gettysburg was won by the Union.The war didn’t end slavery, but instead furthered the advancement in ending slavery. Years after the war in 1865 the 13th amendment was adopted and slavery was then on out illegal. The war was not just about slavery, but also about taxes. The higher taxes came about to the south when Lincoln needed money. All in all the Battle of Gettysburg is the bloodiest war and had the most causalities. Works Cited â€Å"Battle of Gettysburg. † Summary ; Facts. N. p. , n. d. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. ;http://www. historynet. com/battle-of-gettysburg;. â€Å"Cemetery Hill. † Gettysburg. N. p. , n. d. Web. 09 Dec. 012. ;http://www. historynet. com/cemetery-hill;. â€Å"Cemetery Ridge. † History Net Where History Comes Alive World US History Online Cemetery Ridge Comments. N. p. , n. d. Web. 09 Dec. 2012. ;http://www. historynet. com/cemetery-ridge;. â€Å"Culp's Hill. † History Net Where History Comes Alive World US History Online Culps Hill Comments. N. p. , n. d. Web. 09 Dec. 2012. ;http://www. historynet. com/culps-hill;. â€Å"The Devil's Den. † History Net Where History Comes Alive World US History Online The Devils Den Comments. N. p. , n. d. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. ;http://www. historynet. om/devils-den-gettysburg;. â€Å"The Gettysburg Address. † History Net Where History Comes Alive World US History Online The Gettysburg Address Co mments. N. p. , n. d. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. ;http://www. historynet. com/the-gettysburg-address;. â€Å"Gettysburg Address Text. † History Net Where History Comes Alive World US History Online Gettysburg Address Text Comments. N. p. , n. d. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. ;http://www. historynet. com/gettysburg-address-text;. â€Å"Gettysburg Day Three. † Battle of Gettysburg, Gettysburg Battle Summary, Gettysburg Address. N. p. , n. d. Web. 01 Dec. 2012. ;http://www. ivilwaracademy. com/gettysburg-day-three. html;. â€Å"Little Round Top. † Battle Summary ; Facts. N. p. , n. d. Web. 09 Dec. 2012. ;http://www. historynet. com/little-round-top;. â€Å"Pickett's Charge. † Pickett's Charge. N. p. , n. d. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. . Samit, Christian G. â€Å"Battle of Gettysburg — Day Two. † History Net Where History Comes Alive World US History Online Battle of Gettysburg Day Two Comments. America's Civil War Magazine, 29 Aug. 2006. Web. 01 Dec. 2012. ;http://www. hi storynet. com/battle-of-gettysburg-day-two. htm;.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Junk food in schools Essay

The Government had set out a ban to prevent junk food from being sold to children at canteens. Mark Fraser had written a letter to a newspaper company called Community Chronicle on the 29th of October 2010 to share his disbelief at the government’s vain attempt to prevent obesity. Throughout this piece, he uses an attacking tone. He aims to target the audience of parents with children in schools to agree with him on his contention that this vain attempt will not benefit the children. Since the beginning, Fraser believes that eating habits are heavily influenced by the parents. He urges parents to take responsibility of their own children. He admits that he weighs â€Å"close to 100 kilograms† and further strengthens his statement by claiming that he is a â€Å"responsible parent.† He personalizes the statement and enables the audience to see him as a regular person and also being a responsible parent for his children despite being overweight. Fraser argues that children need to learn â€Å"self-restraint† and that parents should be responsible to make â€Å"informed decisions† for their children. He implies to the audience that a responsible parent should educate their children on their food choices. Fraser quoted Dr Peter Clifton who said â€Å"37 percent† of their daily energy intake is consumed at school, but only â€Å"14 percent† was lunch bought from the school canteen and â€Å"schools should be a focus for combating childhood obesity but strategies were needed to tackle the lunchbox, not just the school canteen.† He shifts the blame from the school cafeteria to the parents, implying that the parents should make good decisions for their children when packing for them. Fraser believes that the bans will have no impact on children’s eating habits. He begins by claiming this â€Å"strategy will not make our children perfectly healthy eaters† and † it will not encourage our kids to get out and get fit.† He implies that they’re other more effective solutions out there other than â€Å"canteen policing†. Fraser had also quoted two major principals’ associations that â€Å"young people consume at most 5 of their 21 meals a week at school† and the policy would make kids feel that â€Å"junk food is an attractive â€Å"taboo†.† He reinforces his contention by implementing the use of expert opinion, leading the audience to be more likely to believe his contention. Lastly, Fraser expresses his concern regarding the schools’ finances by stating that the â€Å"canteen is a major revenue stream for school funding.† He suggests that once the ban is put into place, sales wouldn’t be too great and there schools would lose it’s main source of revenue. Fraser also questioned whether the government would be â€Å"allocating additional funds for the revenue shortfall† He also suggested that the government might not fund the school’s revenue shortfall even if the school is affected by the ban. Fraser suggests that the ban will most likely cause major financial problems regarding the schools’ revenue steam. Fraser believed that the ban proposed by the government was merely a waste of time. He had strongly conveyed his negative opinion toward the government’s approach from the very start. He believes that children’s eating habits are majorly influenced by the parents, not the school canteen’s food choices. Fraser also believes that the bans will be off no impact toward children’s eating habits and at the same time also cause major financial problems for the school. He urges for the state government to â€Å"wake up† and see that â€Å"kids need opportunities to make their own decisions† and â€Å"stay active.†

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Layers of the Earth Essay

The Crust is the first and upper most layer of the Earth. There is Continental Crust which sits on top of Oceanic Crust. This layer is made frequently from granite rocks and is solid. Continental Crust is approximately 32km. Below the Continental Crust is Oceanic Crust. It is about 8km. This part of the Crust is made from basalt rocks. The Crust is most of lithosphere and is the coolest layer by far. Mantle is like silly putty consistency. It is the largest layer of Earth sitting under the Crust. It is made roughly from silicon, oxygen, iron, and magnesium. The layer is composed almost entirely of magma – molten rock inside the earth. The mantle is about 2,900km thick. The mantle gets warmer with depth; the top of the mantle is about 870Â ° C, headed for the bottom of the mantle, the temperature is about 2,200-3,700Â ° C. Outer Core is the third layer. This level is basically liquid. Most of this layer is made from liquid nickel and iron. Outer Core is about 2,200km thick. The temperature of the Outer Core is 4000-5000Â °C. Inner Core is the fourth layer of the Earth. The thickness of the Inner Core is 1,250km and mainly consists of iron, nickel and some lighter elements (probably sulphur, carbon, oxygen, silicon and potassium. The temperature in the inner core is about 5000-6000Â °C, it is the hottest layer of the Earth. Because of the high pressure, the core is solid. If a person were to travel that deep, they would burn up with in the Mantle before they ever came near the core. Even with a ship that could withstand the high temperature, it would be crushed by the great pressure.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Country project Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Country project - Essay Example According to our business strategies, Saudi Armco will produce an estimate of 8 barrels annually and manage over 100 oil and gas fields in Saudi Arabia (Tait). In addition, it has 300 trillion scfd of natural gas oil rich reserves estimated to have a yield of approximately 260 million barrels, hence explaining why it accounts to be the leading daily oil producer globally (Fernandez). Some of these prominent reserves embrace Ghawar and Shaybah, which are the world’s principal oil fields ever unveiled. In addition, Saudi Armco boasts of having the world’s largest hydrocarbon network, which is mainly the Master Gas system - MGS. MGS is a gas gathering and processing system built in 1975 that will enable Saudi Armco to sell all its gas products obtained during oil production as well as from gas reservoirs (Badr 1). The system will also become Saudi Arabia’s industrialization main resource ever since it can produce large amounts of natural gas on a daily basis. (Ferna ndez). In addition, Saudi Armco hosts several goals it ought to accomplish like producing about 10% of energy consumed globally on daily basis (Zuhur 149). To maintain its petroleum production capacity, Saudi Armco will constantly involve itself in varied investments with the intention of heightening its good publicity, be the most reliable energy producer and a global supplier. All the company’s activities will encompass exploring, refining, chemical processes, distribution, marketing and production, which will all be exclusively under supervision of Ministry of petroleum and mineral resources in conjunction with the supreme council for petroleum and minerals. Initially, Saudi Armco’s plans were to use Cray supercomputers in its EXPEC computer centre (ECC) in aid to process large quantities of data from exploration (Badr 2). However, plans are underway to ensure we integrate a new supercomputing system with a storage capacity of 1050 terabytes to enable it support maj or explorations in the Red sea region. Currently, Saudi Armco owns five domestic refineries in Saudi Arabia, which will be primarily for availing adequate oil products to the local market. In addition, together with other stakeholders, the enterprise expects to buy a half of each of the two existing in-kingdom refineries located at Yanbu and Jubail. According to our objectives, apart from marketing crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas together with liquids, Saudi Armco will also export crude oil to other global regions using tankers. The Company will also actively participate in the fight against environmental degradation like air and water pollution. For instance, the management board has already rolled out Saudi Armco’s environmental plan incorporating all intended departmental branches (Badr 2). In this context, Saudi Armco will be able to play a major role in advocating for technological solutions to environmental issues not only now but also in the future. Conse quently, this will prompt the company to maintain all its projects while under in operation aim at minimizing their environmental pollution by use of high classic technological knowhow (Badr 3). Part 2 Saudi Arabia Physical and demographic environment Advantages to business Most oil and gas reservoirs explored by Saudi Armco their respective locations are in Saudi Arabia. This is a great advantage to the enterprise because it does not incur costs of transporting raw materials to the refineries before shipped to varied

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Teacher Education in TESOL (Master's Level) Research Paper

Teacher Education in TESOL (Master's Level) - Research Paper Example 19). Teacher development is the development of a sense of the strengths and weaknesses in a teacher so that the increased self-awareness resulting from the process helps the teacher identify better ways to teach others. Training and education are both the means of development of a teacher. How is second language teacher training different from teacher training in other disciplines? Second language teacher training differs from training of teachers in other disciplines in that it imparts a need for the teacher to study and develop compatibility with different cultural factors that drive the students’ tendency to learn second language, language being intrinsically and integrally linked with culture whereas training in other subjects is not constrained by cultural differences. Teacher training in other disciplines is primarily about developing the expertise of the teacher in the technical aspects of the subject e.g. lab work training for such subjects as physics and chemistry, an d training of software and programming for the subject of computer. On the contrary, training of teachers in the teaching of second language is more about reaching out to the students both individually and collectively so as to understand the barriers they face in developing their competence in the second language. One aspect of teacher training in the subject of second language teaching could be planning and designing of lecture in such a way that it includes activities and exercises aimed at individually targeting the barriers of students in learning the second language, respecting the time constraints of the lecture. 2. Summary of teacher training history and the main theories on teacher training. The history of teacher training varies from one country to another, yet one common and very favorable improvement that has occurred over the years is increased use of ICT and advanced technology in the teacher training. The training of primary school teachers dates back to the late Vict orian period when it commenced almost by an accident after the Kindergarten school was established in the year 1882 (Randall, 2007). Bedford was families’ choice because of the availability of high quality of education. The Training College was established originally with only five students and continued to remain at the site for more than 70 years. The Bedford students followed Friedrich Froebel’s progressive model of training. The system gradually became more developed and advanced. Likewise, the only teaching requirements in the colonial period in America were mediocre learning and low pay. Teacher training began during the 1820s and 1830s in academies that were equal to the contemporary secondary schools (The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 2011). †¦..and the main theories on teacher training. Ethical theories primarily apply in teacher training. â€Å"We believe that some teaching of ethical theory – the teaching of the ways we can distinguish right from wrong, good from bad - is necessary in ethics courses, but we suggest a modest, not a major role for theory† (Bowden and Smythe, 2008, p. 23). Since unethical behavior is identifiable, students and teachers can individually assess their actions’ rightness or wrongness. Training of the teachers of second language describes the teacher’s notion as a reflective practitioner, that is an individual who reflects on the professional practices with a view to