Friday, March 15, 2019
Moral Luck Essay -- Analysis, Williams Bernard
The incase of righteous luck was introduced by Williams Bernard and developed by Thomas Nagel in their articles respectively. Both raised the interview whether luck tolerate influence the perspicaciousness of morality. In this essay, the definition of moral luck and four kinds of moral luck by Williams and Nagel will be discussed through several case examples, and then followed with some arguments from Judith Andre, Donna Dickenson and David Enoch and Andrei Marmor who disagree with the sentiment of moral luck. Let take a simple example from Nagels paper to acquire a brief understanding on the persuasion of moral luck. Driver A and B were both drunk when madcap home. Drive A passed the red light and killed a child who was head the street while driver B got home safely. To Williams and Nagel, driver A should be, of course, responsible for manslaughter under the laws, but also should be morally treated as the same as driver B since the difference placecomes atomic number 18 solely based on luck. As Williams argues luck of this kind affects whether he will be plainlyified or not, since if it strikes, he will not be justified (Williams, p.25). Therefore, in his book Moral Luck, Williams introduced a new term moral luck referring to luck that occurs when an agent can be correctly treated as an object of moral judgment despite the fact that a significant aspect of what she is assessed for depends on factors beyond her control (Nelkin).Nagel agrees to Williams idea and categorizes moral luck into four different types. They be constitutive, circumstantial, resultant, and causal luck. Constitutive luck refers to the kind of person you are, where this is not just a question of what you deliberately do, but of your inclination, capacities, and temperament. In anoth... ...g the excogitation is, or how certain we feel about it, (Enoch and Marmor, p. 422). Williamss and Nagels opinion of moral luck encounter more disagreement than being concord since moral luck is not ordinaryly applicable in all situation. The existence of either motive or agent-regret will, in some cases, be enigma since they are private matter and unknown to the rest of us. Therefore, the case of moral luck has been yet remains unsolved due to its inconsistency. On the other hand, if motives and intentions (of being moral) are not counted and/or agent-regret does exist, it will be unfair to the person who is incorrectly treated since the result is actually out of their control. Thus, the moral luck is a sensitive matter and should be apply per case based on the presented facts. There is no such universal formula for relevance of moral luck in each situation.